Reinforced Concrete

Failure analysis of reinforced concrete was a leading subject for research in the late 80’s and 90’s in Europe, the US and Japan. Mathematical formulations for cracking and crushing of concrete were developed and validated in experimental tests.  DIANA was used as the numerical platform for development and validation of concepts, as well as for the numerical models for cracking of concrete, by a consortium of research organisations.  This formed the basis of analysis capabilities for failure of reinforced concrete structures upon which DIANA was defined.


In the second half of the 90’s, with the support of Dutch Ministry of Public Works, these concepts were further developed into models that could be used in the frame work of a 3-dimensional general purpose program for application on practical structures. In the last decade, the practical application of DIANA, in terms of user-friendliness and performance have been further developed.

For the accurate analysis of damage development, and failure of reinforced concrete structures, the different material characteristics of steel and concrete need to be considered precisely.   DIANA’s reinforced concrete models are based on the exact geometry definition of reinforcements and concrete, the explicit description of material failure of the steel reinforcements, the concrete and the bond-slip connection between both.  This is contrary to many other programs in which models are based on phenomenological behavior in common situations, which cannot be extrapolated to special conditions such as failure of composite structures with specific loading conditions or loading history.

DIANA can perform integral failure analysis of structures, taking into account construction phases and loading history, including heat loadings, stresses from the concrete hardening, soil-structure interaction, dynamic loadings and changing material behaviour with time.

Recently, DIANA has been extended with design checking capabilities for reinforcement grids in plate structures in full 3D models in accordance with modern international design codes.  Also, added is a sequential linear analysis module for easy assessment of Ultimate Limit State, and Serviceability Limit State assessment by a series of linear analysis stiffness in overloaded integration-points, which are reduced in the maximum strain direction in subsequent steps.  In addition, new features have been added at a material level to consider the heterogeneity of concrete, as well as introducing fiber materials in order to simulate fiber reinforced material models.

Thus, in DIANA, design of Full 3D structures, inclusive easy assessment of ULS/SLS and fully integrated failure analysis of reinforced structures can all be done in the same program.

In addition to the reinforced concrete structures specific technical data and specifications below, see also the general technical information.  Our range of brochures are also available for download.  Or, if you have a specific question about DIANA that would like to ask, please use the webform.

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