DIANA Finite Element Analysis - Masonry & Historical


Historical constructions represent the history of a country and continue to form a source of income, from tourism, for its economy, and should be available for future generations to enjoy. Thus, the importance of ensuring structural safety of these structures and to preserve their artistic value is imperative.

Analysis of historical construction is more complex than analysis of newly constructed structures. There is uncertainty on the materials from which they are built, on the construction sequence, and on the events that have occurred during the lifetime of the structure. If strengthening, restoration or any other intervention is required, this should be not visible to the visitors’ eyes.

Why use DIANA?

In short, analysis of historical structures requires different, and more distinguished tools than in case of modern structures. Historical structures are often of masonry constructions. DIANA has a suite of unique analysis capabilities that give the user the ability to analyse masonry structures in detail, or as a whole, under standard or extreme loading such as earthquakes.

In addition to the list of specific technical data and specifications relating to the analysis of historical structures shown below, see also the general functionality information (to the right of this page).  Our range of brochures are also available for download.  Or, if you have a specific question about DIANA that you would like to ask, please use the webform.

Dedicated Features for Masonry & Historical Structures

At meso-level bricks are modelled with continuum elements and joints with interface elements


  • Elastic or viscoelastic material


  • Discrete crack model with or without crack dilatancy
  • Coulomb friction model
  • Combined Cracking-Shearing-Crushing Model 
  • User Supplied Subroutines
  • Anisotropic Rankine-Hill plasticity model for 2D plane stress, with optional crack rate dependence
  • Multi-directional fixed crack models in combination with shrinkage and viscoelasticity 
  • Total-strain crack models
  • Engineering masonry model
  • Bars or grids with bond-slip interfaces
  • Bonded or unbonded bars and grids
  • Mass density per unit volume
  • Reduced mass density for dead weight correction
  • Distributed mass elements with damping properties for defining non-reflection boundaries
  • Consistent and lumped concentrated translational masses and rotational inertia
  • Viscous or Rayleigh damping
  • Structural or hysteretic damping
  • Continuous damping via discrete spring/dashpot elements
Masonry & Historical