This paper focuses on the structural performance of existing masonry and reinforced concrete bridges which were surveyed in the aftermath of the 2016 Central Italy earthquakes. Typical bridge vulnerabilities are first reviewed, as they provide a reference for the response of the bridges that were damaged by the 2016 earthquake swarm. Case studies are then discussed and preliminary numerical analyses are carried out to interpret the observed failure modes. In general, all surveyed masonry bridges experienced some extent of damage, particularly when built with poor-quality materials and subjected to geotechnical induced effects. However, they offered a robust response in terms of collapse prevention. The majority of existing reinforced concrete bridges, although designed primarily for gravity loads, exhibited acceptable performance; however, local damage due to the poor maintenance of the structural systems was observed, which affected primarily the non-structural components of the bridges.